by Antony C. Sutton
Is There a Conspiracy
Explanation for Recent History?
During the past one hundred years any
theory of history or historical evidence that falls outside a
pattern established by the American Historical Association and the
major foundations with their grant-making power has been attacked or
rejected -- not on the basis of any evidence presented, but on the
basis of acceptability of the argument to the so-called Eastern
Liberal Establishment and its official historical line.
There is an Establishment history, an official history, which
dominates history textbooks, trade publishing, the media and library
shelves. The official line always assumes that events such as wars,
revolutions, scandals, assassinations, are more or less random
unconnected events. By definition, events can NEVER be the result of
a conspiracy, they can never result from premeditated planned group
We are going to argue and present detailed precise evidence
(including names, dates and places) that the only reasonable
explanation for recent history in the United States is that there
exists a conspiracy to use political power for ends which are
inconsistent with the Constitution... If there can be a conspiracy
in the market place, then why not in the political arena?
Most CFR members are not involved in a conspiracy and have no
knowledge of any conspiracy... However, there is a group WITHIN the
Council on Foreign Relations which belongs to a secret society,
sworn to secrecy, and which more or less controls the CFR [whose]
meetings are used for their own purposes.
These members are in The Order. Their membership in The Order can be
proven. Their meetings can be proven. Their objectives are plainly
unconstitutional. And this ORDER has existed for 150 years in the
What It Is and How It Began
Those on the inside know it as The Order. For legal purposes,
Order was incorporated as the Russell Trust in 1856. It was also
once known as the "Brotherhood of Death". Those who make light of
it...call it "Skull & Bones".
The American chapter of this German order was founded in 1833 at
Yale University by General William Huntington Russell and Alphonso
Taft who, in 1876, became Secretary of War in the Grant
administration. Alphonso Taft was the father of William Howard Taft,
the only man to be both President and Chief Justice of the United
The Order is not just another campus Greek letter fraternal society.
Chapter 322 is a secret society whose members are sworn to silence.
It is not at all happy with prying, probing citizens -- known among
initiates as "outsiders" or "vandals". Its members always deny
membership (or are supposed to deny membership). Above all, The
Order is powerful, unbelievably powerful. (see note
The Order is a senior year society which exists only at Yale.
Members are chosen in their Junior year and spend only one year on
campus, the Senior year, with Skull & Bones. In other words, the
organization is oriented to the post graduate outside world.
There are two other senior societies at Yale... Scroll & Key and
Wolf's Head are supposedly competitive societies founded in the mid
19th century. We believe these to be part of the same network.
What is the significance of the "322" in Chapter 322?... [One]
interpretation is that The Order is descended from a Greek fraternal
society dating back to Demosthenes in 322 B.C. ...Bones records are
dated by adding 322 to the current year, i.e. records originating in
1950 are dated Anno Demostheni 2272.
Each year 15, and only 15 [new members] are selected. In the past
150 years, about 2500 Yale graduates have been initiated into The
Order. At any one time about 500-600 are alive and active. Roughly
about one-quarter of these take an active role in furthering the
objectives of The Order. The others either lose interest or change
The most likely potential member is from a Bones family, who is
energetic, resourceful, political and probably an amoral team
player... Honor and financial rewards are guaranteed by the power of
The Order. But the price of these honors and rewards is sacrifice to
the common goal, the goal of The Order.
Entry into The Order is accompanied by an elaborate ritual... The
neophyte's name is changed...like a monk or Knight of Malta or
John, [he] becomes Knight so and so. The old Knights are then known
as Patriarch so and so. The outside world are known as Gentiles and
It is instructive to compare 1833 with 1983 and how, over the
century and half span, a group of 20-30 families has emerged to
dominate The Order. It seems that active members have enough
influence to push their sons and relatives into The Order and there
is significant inter-marriage among the families.
These families fall into two major groups.
First, we find old line
American families who arrived on the East coast in the 1600s
(Whitney, Lord, Phelps, Wadsworth, Allen, Bundy, Adams and so on).
Second, we find families who acquired wealth in the last 100 years,
sent their sons to Yale and in time became almost old line families
(Harriman, Rockefeller, Payne, Davison).
One example is the Lord family. The first Lord to be initiated into
The Order was George DeForest Lord (1854), a New York lawyer [and
founder of] the New York law firm of Lord, Day and Lord. In the next
hundred years, five more Lords were initiated into The Order,
[including] Winston Lord (1959). (see note
How Much is
Known About The Order?
Only one article is known to have been published within the last 100
years on The Order [as of 1983]. Unfortunately, it is a superficial,
almost mocking, review and provides some enlightenment but little
contribution to historical knowledge. The article is the "Last
Secrets of Skull and Bones" by Ron Rosenbaum (Esquire, September
1977). Rosenbaum is a Yale graduate attracted by the fictional
possibilities of a secret society out to control the world.
This author does however, possess copies of the "Address" books,
which used to be called "Catalogues". These are the membership lists
all the way back to 1832. With these we can reconstruct a picture of
motives, objectives and operations.
The actions of individual
members are already recorded in open history and archives. By
determining when members enter a scene, what they did, what they
argued, who they appointed and when they faded out, we can assemble
patterns and deduce objectives.
Who Is In This
Most members are from the Eastern seaboard of the United States.
Members are all males and almost all White Anglo-Saxon Protestants.
In great part they descended from English Puritan families. These
families either intermarried with financial power or invited...
money moguls whose sons became members of The Order.
A key family is the Whitneys, descended from English Puritans who
came to the U.S. about 1635. Eight Whitneys have been members of The
Order. William Collins Whitney (1863) and his two sons, W. Payne
Whitney (1898) and Harry Payne Whitney (1894), are the core of
Whitney influence in The Order which survives today through the
Harriman family and intermarriage with Paynes and Vanderbilts.
Hypothesis Number One:
A Secret Society dominated by old line
American families and new wealth has existed from 1833 to the
Lord family (1635,
Bundy family (1635,
Phelps family (1630,
(1635, Watertown Mass.)
(1631, Boston Mass.)
(1635, Watertown Mass.)
Taft family (1679,
(1632, Newtown Mass.)
Gilman family (1638,
Davison family (J.P.
William Collins Whitney (1841-1904) is a fine example of how members
of The Order rise to fame and fortune. W.C. Whitney was initiated in
1863... In the last three decades of the century, he rolled up a
massive fortune, became a power behind the throne in the Cleveland
administration, and directed the often unscrupulous activities of a
cluster of capitalists known as "the Whitney Group".
William C. Whitney married Flora Payne, daughter of Standard Oil
Treasurer Oliver Payne. Their two sons, Harry Payne Whitney (1894)
and Payne Whitney (1898), went to Yale and became members of The
Order. After Yale, Harry Payne Whitney promptly married Gertrude
Vanderbilt in 1896. [Their son] Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney married
Marie Norton. After their divorce, Marie Norton Whitney married W. Averell Harriman (1913). It is these tightly woven family and
financial interlocks that make up the core of The Order.
The elder Harriman, a prominent and not too scrupulous railroad
magnate, sent both his sons to Yale. William Averell Harriman (1913)
and Edward Roland Noel Harriman (1917) joined The Order. It may be
that Harriman and his fellow investment bankers have dominated the
direction of The Order in the past few decades.
In the 1930s, W.A. Harriman & Company merged with Brown Brothers.
This was an older financial house whose partners were also members
of The Order. By the 1970s the relatively unknown private
international banking firm of Brown Brothers Harriman, with assets
of about one-half billion dollars, had taken in so many of "the
Brotherhood" that out of 26 individual partners, no fewer than 9
were members of The Order.
And to make it more interesting, Prescott Bush, father of vice
president George H.W. Bush (both in The Order), was a partner in
Brown Brothers Harriman for over 40 years. (see note
Finally, because Brown Brothers Harriman is a private banking firm
it has relatively no government supervision and does not publish an
annual report. In other words, we know NOTHING about its operations
-- at least we know nothing from Brown Brothers Harriman sources.
Brown Brothers Harriman advertisement
from the Wall Street Journal, July 11, 1972 listing partners.
J. Eugene Banks
Moreau D. Brown
Walter H. Brown
William R. Driver Jr.
Terrence M. Farley
Elbridge T. Gerry
John C. Hanson
Frank W. Hoch
Stephen Y. Hord
R.L. Ireland III
F.H. Kingsbury Jr.
Robert A. Lovett
John B. Madden
William F. Ray
Robert V. Roosa
L. Parks Shipley
Maarten van Hengel
John C. West
W. Averell Harriman
Brown Brothers Harriman partners who
were also members of the Order:
Walter H. Brown (1945)
Prescott S. Bush (1917)
Granger K. Costikyan (1929)
E.R. Harriman (1917)
Stephen Y. Hord (1921)
Robert A. Lovett (1918)
John B. Madden (1941)
Knight Wooley (1917)
W. Averell Harriman (1913)
In many ways, these old line Yankee families have outsmarted the
bankers. [They] diverted bankers' wealth to their own objectives
without always absorbing the banker families. The Order controls the
substantial wealth of Andrew Carnegie, but no Carnegie has ever been
The Order used the Ford wealth so
flagrantly against the wishes of the Ford family that two Fords
resigned from the board of the Ford Foundation. No Ford has been a
member of The Order. The name Morgan has never appeared on the
membership lists, although some Morgan partners are with the inner
core, for example, Davison and Perkins.
Organizations Has It Penetrated?
The Order has either set up or penetrated just about every
significant research, policy, and opinion-making organization in the
United States, in addition to the Church, business, law, government
and politics... The evolution of American society is not, and has
not been for a century, a voluntary development reflecting
individual opinion... On the contrary, the broad direction has been
created artificially and stimulated by The Order.
It's a situation very much as Quigley found in "The Group" [based at
Oxford University in England]:
"It is probable that most members of
the outer circle were not conscious that they were being used by a
The Order gets the ball rolling in new organizations; [it] puts in
the FIRST President or Chairman, and the ideas, and then when
operations are rolling along, often just fades out of the picture.
Among universities we can cite Cornell University, where Andrew
Dickson White (1853) was its FIRST President, and Johns Hopkins
University, based on the German educational system, where Daniel Coit Gilman (1852) was the FIRST President (1875-1901).
Among academic associations the American Historical Association, the
American Economic Association, the American Chemical Society, and
the American Psychological Association were all started by members
of The Order or persons close to The Order.
The FIRST President of the Carnegie Institution (from 1902-05) was
Daniel Coit Gilman, but other members of The Order have been on
Carnegie boards since the turn of the century. Gilman was on the
scene for the founding of the Peabody, Slater and Russell Sage
foundations. McGeorge Bundy (1940) was President of the Ford
Foundation from 1966-79.
The FIRST Chairman of the American Society for the Judicial
Settlement of International Disputes was member William Howard Taft
(1878). The Society was the forerunner of the League to Enforce the
Peace, which developed into the League of Nations concept and
the United Nations. In the United Nations we find,
for example, Archibald MacLeish (1915) who was the brains behind the
constitution of the UNESCO organization.
In 1960, James Jeremiah Wadsworth (1927) set up the Peace Research
Institute. In 1963 this was merged to become the Institute for
Policy Studies, along with Marcus Rashking who had been
Security Council aide to McGeorge Bundy (1940), a very active member
of The Order.
A key penetration is the Union Theological Seminary, affiliated with
Columbia University in New York. Henry Sloane Coffin (1897) was
Professor of Practical Theology at Union from 1904-26 and
The major establishment law firms in New York are saturated with The
Order. Lord, Day and Lord dominated by the Lord family; Simpson, Thacher and Bartlett, especially the Thacher family; David, Polk,
Wardwell; and Debevoise, Plimpton, the Rockefeller family law firm.
There has been a significant penetration into communications. Some
Henry Luce (1920), of Time-Life
William Buckley Jr. (1950), of
Alfred Cowles (1913), president
of Cowles Communications
Emmert Bates (1932), of Litton
Richard Ely Danielson (1907), of
Russell Wheeler Davenport
(1923), of Fortune
John Chipman Farrar (1918), of
publisher Farrar, Straus
The most prestigious award in journalism
is a Nieman Fellowship at Harvard University. The FIRST Director of
the Nieman Fund was member Archibald MacLeish (1915).
Pierre Jay (1892) became the FIRST Chairman of the Federal Reserve
Bank of New York.
Politics and government is the area where The Order has made
headway, with names like Taft, Bush, Stimson, Chafee, Lovett,
Whitney, Bundy and so on.
In 1981, "The Anglo American Establishment" by Carroll Quigley was
published in New York. Quigley describes in minute detail the
historical operations of the British establishment, controlled by a
secret society and operation very much as The Order operates in the
The British secret society, known as "The Group"... was founded at
Oxford University, much as The Order was founded at Yale. The Group
operates in a series of concentric circles and like The Order
consists of old line families allied with private merchant bankers,
known in the U.S. as investment bankers.
The Group's objective is recorded in Cecil Rhodes' will:
"The extension of British rule
throughout the world, the perfecting of a system of emigration
from the United Kingdom and of colonization by British subjects
of all lands... and the ultimate recovery of the United States
of America as an integral part of the British Empire."
Both The Group and The Order are
unwilling or unable to bring about a global society by voluntary
means, so they opted for coercion. To do this they have created wars
and revolutions, they have ransacked public treasuries, they have
oppressed, they have pillaged, they have lied -- even to their own
The activities of The Order are directed towards changing our
society, changing the world, to bring about a
New World Order. This
will be a planned order with heavily restricted individual freedom,
without Constitutional protection, without national boundaries or
cultural distinction... Part of this activity has been in
cooperation with The Group, with its parallel and recorded
We know the elements in society that will have to be changed in
order to bring about this New World Order; we can then examine The
Order's actions in this context.
Education: how the population of
the future will behave
Money: the means of holding
wealth and exchanging goods
Law: the authority to enforce
the will of the state
Politics: the direction of the
Economy: the creation of wealth
History: what people believe
happened in the past
Psychology: the means of
controlling how people think
Philanthropy: so that people
think well of the controllers
Medicine: the power over health,
life and death
Religion: people's spiritual
beliefs, the spur to action for many
Media: what people know and
learn about current events
Continuity: the power to appoint
who follows in your footsteps
The Order's next move was to control the
Foundations. They got all the big ones -- Carnegie, Ford, Peabody,
Slater, Russell Sage and so on. As in education, the modus operandi
of The Order was to get in FIRST and set the stage for the future.
The initial objective was to establish a direction in an
organization. Selection of managers intuitive or amoral enough to
catch on to the direction kept the momentum going. (see note
When it comes to activities by individual members, at first sight
the pattern is confusing and superficially inconsistent. [For
example,] in the 1920s, W. Averell Harriman was a prime supporter of
the Soviets with finance and diplomatic assistance. Harriman
participated in Ruskombank, the first Soviet commercial bank.
May, vice president of Guaranty Trust, dominated by the
Harriman-Morgan interests, became the FIRST vice president of Ruskombank in charge of its foreign operations.
But we also find that Averell Harriman, his brother Roland Harriman,
and members E.S. James and Knight Wooley, through the Union Bank (in
which they held a major interest) were prime financial backers of
Now our textbooks tell us that Nazis and Soviets were bitter enemies
and [that] their systems are opposites. How could a rational man
support Soviets and Nazis at the same time? Is Harriman irrational
or is the inconsistency explainable?
The answer is, [such actions] are not at all inconsistent: because
the objective of The Order is above and beyond these actions and in
fact needs these seeming contradictions.
The objective of The Order is neither "Left" nor "Right".
right are artificial devices to bring about change, and the extremes
of political left and political right are vital elements in a process
of controlled change.
Remember that both Marx and Hitler, the extremes of "left" and
"right" presented as textbook enemies, evolved out of the same
philosophical system: Hegelianism... The dialectical process did not
originate with Marx (as Marxists claim), but with Fitche and Hegel
in late 18th and early 19th century Germany. In the dialectical
process, a clash of opposites brings about a synthesis... This
conflict of opposites is essential to bring about change.
Furthermore, for Hegel and systems based on Hegel, the State is
absolute. The State requires complete obedience from the individual
citizen. An individual does not exist for himself in these so-called
organic systems but only to perform a role in the operation of the
State. He finds freedom only in obedience to the State.
This, then, is a vital part of our explanation of The Order. When
its co-founder, William Russell was in Germany in 1831-32, there was
no way he could have avoided Hegelian theory and discussion. It was
the talk of the campus. It swept intellectual Germany...
Most of us believe that the State exists to serve the individual,
not vice versa. The Order believes the opposite... The discussion
and the funding is always toward more state power, use of state
power and away from individual rights... So long as rights of the
individual are not introduced into the discussion the clash of ideas
generates the conflict necessary for change.
How The Order
Relates to the CFR and Similar Organizations
Organizations like the
Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) do not fit
the requirements for a conspiracy. They are simply too large and
their membership is not secret. The membership list for The Order
has never surfaced until now. Anyone can obtain a list of members
for the CFR and the
Trilateral Commission (TC).
The larger open organizations are a forum for discussion, a place
where ideas can be kicked around... where people can be assessed,
where discrete comment and criticism can be made away from a nosy
press... They may no be elected bodies, but neither are they
The Order is represented in these organizations but does not always
David Rockefeller, a former chairman of the CFR, is not a
member of The Order (only Percy Rockefeller has represented the
family), but the present  chairman, Winston Lord is.
We can represent the relationship between The Order and the larger
groups as a series of concentric circles:
The outer circle - Made up of large,
open organizations with some membership coming from The Order
The inner circle - Made up of one or
more secret societies like Chapter 322.
The inner core - A secret society
within a secret society. This is the inner decision-making core.
We cannot prove [that] it exists, but logic suggests that some
members of the inner circle will form an executive committee, an
action group, an inner core.
The Outer Circle
The Council on Foreign Relations is the largest organization in the
outer circle. It has about 2500 members at any one time, as many as
The Order in its entire history. The CFR dates from 1922. [For
example,] the following are members of The Order and the CFR:
William F. Buckley, Editor
McGeorge Bundy, Foundation
William P. Bundy, Central
George H.W. Bush,
Vice-President of the United States
The Trilateral Commission was founded in
1973 by David Rockefeller and comprises 200 members worldwide, of
whom about 77 are American. There is no overlap among memberships.
However, Trilateral purposes, as portrayed in the literature, are
almost identical to those of The Order. [Note that] J. Richardson
Dilworth, the Rockefeller Family Associates chief financial and
administrative officer is a member of The Order.
Bilderberg Group dates from the 1950s. So far as we can trace,
only William F. Buckley is a member of the Bilderbergers and The
Pilgrim Society dates from 1900. The Order does not show up
directly on the Executive Committee of the Pilgrim Society, but only
through family names, i.e. Aldrich and Pratt.
Chapter 322 of The Order differs from the CFR, Trilateral Commission
and similar organizations in that it is truly a secret society. Its
purposes and membership are not disclosed. It is paranoid about
secrecy and in covering its trail.
Another important distinction between the outer [circle] and the
inner circle is in funding. The families in The Order are closer to
more foundations and more sources of funding than the Rockefeller
family... Remember, it was The Order that got John D. Rockefeller
off the ground with his General Education Board, not the other way
If we were to look back to 1983 from the year 2083, it could be that
the Rockefellers will have followed in the footsteps of the
Carnegies and the Morgans. Names in dusty files but no longer
represented in the power group. (see note
The Chain of
Initiates into The Order are assured of career advancement and
success, even wealth, providing they follow the rule "to get along
you must go along". Intermarriage consolidates the power of the
families and expands their span of influence. Finally, a chain of
influence spread over many years guarantees continuity.
Members of the order are to be found in every segment of society...
The major occupations of members are law, education, business,
finance and industry. These five occupations account for over three
quarters of the membership, and these are key fields for control of
society. Notably the areas of society least represented are those
with the least ability to influence the structural direction of
The practice of absolute preferment for members of The Order has
worked to perpetuate its influence over time in a remarkable manner.
The Order has only initiated about 2500 members in its
history... each year 15 new members are initiated, no more, no less.
Out of 30-40 million degree holders [in the U.S.], a few hundred
men... are presumed to be the only ones fit to occupy top posts in
Furthermore, there are approximately 2500 institutions of higher
learning in the United States. Are we to believe that only one of
these institutions can generate the talent to lead the country?
Four families provides an example of one such chain of influence
(Whitney, Stimson, Acheson and Bundy).
[Table adapted from chart
and text --ed]
William C. Whitney (1863)
Henry L. Stimson
Joins law firm of Elihu
Root in 1890. By 1901, firm becomes Winthrop and
Marries Mabel White,
daughther of Charles A. White (1854)
Secretary of War under
president William H. Taft (1878), succeeding Elihu
Secretary of State under
Secretary of War under
presidents Roosevelt and Truman
Harvey Hollister Bundy
McGeorge Bundy (1940)
William P. Bundy
Member of related Scroll
& Key society at Yale
Daughter Mary Acheson
marries William Bundy
Son David Acheson is
member of The Order
Harvy Hollister Bundy and two of his three sons, William Putnam
Bundy and McGeorge Bundy, are key activists and the activism has a
Hegelian pattern -- i.e., creation of conflict to bring about
change. (For summary of their careers, follow links --ed)
McGeorge Bundy was National Security Advisor in the early years of
the Vietnam debacle. While McGeorge Bundy was in the White House,
his brother William P. Bundy was in key positions relating to the
Far East in [the] Defense and State Departments.
By acting jointly, the Bundy brothers
could have controlled absolutely the flow of information relating to
Vietnam from Intelligence, State and Defense. We are not saying this
happened; we believe it to be a hypothesis worthy of examination.
Lid on the Pot
The Order's control of history, through foundations and the
Historical Association, has been effective. From time to time their
plans go awry. The bubbling pot of political
manipulation... threatens to spill over into public view.
More effective than outright censorship is the use of the left-right
political spectrum to neutralize unwelcome facts and ideas, or just
condition citizens to think along certain lines. The "left" leaning
segment of the press can always be relied upon to automatically
assault ideas and information from the "right", and vice versa.
fact, media outlets have been artificially set up just for this
purpose: both the Nation and New Republic on the "left" were
financed by Willard Straight using Payne Whitney (The Order) funds.
On the "right" National Review published by William Buckley (The
Order) runs a perpetual deficit.
The Order has several problems:
The Order Lives in a Cultural
Straightjacket - Their knowledge of the world comes from an
in-group and those who play along with the in-group. And the
in-group lacks morality and diversity.
An Easy Prey for the Ambitious
Outsider - Henry Kissinger is a prime example -- an outsider
who wants desperately to stay on the inside.
Genetic Problems - Extensive
intermarriage among the families raises a serious question of
Shallow Power Base - There is
no philosophic or cultural depth to The Order; it lacks
The great strength of individualism, an
atomistic social order where the individual holds ultimate
sovereignty, is that any counter-revolution to an imposed social
order where the State is boss can take a million roads and a million
No one is going to create an "anti-The Order" movement. That would
be foolish and unnecessary. It could be infiltrated, bought off, or
diverted all too easily. The movement that will topple The Order
will be extremely simple and most effective. It will be ten thousand
or a million Americans who come to the conclusion that they don't
want the State to be boss, that they prefer to live under the
protection of the Constitution. They will make their own independent
decision to thwart The Order.
In conclusion, we must emphasize one point: An understanding of The
Order and its modus operandi is impossible unless the reader holds
in mind the Hegelian roots of the game plan... A statist system is
the objective of The Order.
Above all the reader must put to one side the descriptive clichés of
left and right, liberal and conservative,
communist and fascist,
even republican and democrat.
These terms may be important for self
recognition... but they are confusing in our context unless seen as
essential elements in a game plan. You will never understand The
Order [or their game plan] if you try to label it right or
E1. In the
2004 presidential elections, both candidates George W. Bush and
John F. Kerry were members of The Order, which could not have
happened by mere chance. In keeping with their oaths, both
refused to discuss The Order or their membership in it. Despite
the evidence of vote fraud in key states, Kerry immediately
conceded the election to his "lodge brother" George Bush.
E2. Winston Lord, long time member and
former Chairman of the CFR, has had a lengthy career as a policy
planner in various government departments under multiple
administrations. Follow links for more.
E3. George H.W. Bush (1948) was later
elected President in 1988. His son, George W. Bush (1968),
another member of The Order, was elected President in 2000. For
more on Prescott Bush and Brown Brothers Harriman, see "
Bush: The Unauthorized Biography".
E4. Most bureaucrats in such
organizations do not simply "catch on" to the mission, but are
recruited as true believers in the cause they think they are
serving, be it "world peace" or whatever. Lenin referred to them
as "useful idiots".
E5. In the 20 years since this was
written, David Rockefeller, Steven Rockefeller, Jay Rockefeller,
etc. -- along with the businesses, foundations and societies
they control -- are still very much a part of the "power group".